pyProximation is a python package that was originally developed to solve integro-differential equations based on approximation on Hilbert function spaces. Thus, it has basic functionalities for computations via measures, generating orthonormal systems of functions from a given basis, interpolation and collocation method as well as some graphics.

For the purpose of this package, we are mainly interested in finding reliable approximations of certain functions. This can be done via pyProximation.OrthSystem. The relevant documentation can be found

Suppose that we want to approximate a given function \(f(x)\) with Chebyshev polynomials of a certain degree \(n\). Chebyshev polynomials are elements of the orthonormal basis obtained from Gram-Schmidt process applied to a monomial basis where the inner product is defined by

\[\langle p, q\rangle = \int_{-1}^1 p\cdot q~d\mu.\]

In this case \(d\mu=\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\). The following code, first generate such an orthonormal basis and then extracts coefficients of the approximation and then the Chebyshev approximation:

from sympy import *
from numpy import sqrt
from pyProximation import Measure, OrthSystem
# the symbolic variable
x = Symbol('x')
# set a limit to the order
n = 6
# define the measure
D = [(-1, 1)]
w = lambda x: 1./sqrt(1. - x**2)
M = Measure(D, w)
S = OrthSystem([x], D, 'sympy')
# link the measure to S
# set B = {1, x, x^2, ..., x^n}
B = S.PolyBasis(n)
# link B to S
# generate the orthonormal basis
m = len(S.OrthBase)
# set f(x) = sin(x)e^x
f = sin(x)*exp(x)
# extract the coefficients
Coeffs = S.Series(f)
# form the approximation
f_aprx = sum([S.OrthBase[i]*Coeffs[i] for i in range(m)])
print f_aprx


pyOpt is a Python-based package for formulating and solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems in an efficient, reusable and portable manner. It is an open-source software distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

pyOpt provides unified interface to the following nonlinear optimizers:
  • SNOPT - Sparse NOlinear OPTimizer
  • NLPQL - Non-Linear Programming by Quadratic Lagrangian
  • NLPQLP - NonLinear Programming with Non-Monotone and Distributed Line Search
  • FSQP - Feasible Sequential Quadratic Programming
  • SLSQP - Sequential Least Squares Programming
  • PSQP - Preconditioned Sequential Quadratic Programming
  • ALGENCAN - Augmented Lagrangian with GENCAN
  • MMA - Method of Moving Asymptotes
  • GCMMA - Globally Convergent Method of Moving Asymptotes
  • CONMIN - CONstrained function MINimization
  • MMFD - Modified Method of Feasible Directions
  • KSOPT - Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser Optimizer
  • COBYLA - Constrained Optimization BY Linear Approximation
  • SDPEN - Sequential Penalty Derivative-free method for Nonlinear constrained optimization
  • SOLVOPT - SOLver for local OPTimization problems
  • ALPSO - Augmented Lagrangian Particle Swarm Optimizer
  • NSGA2 - Non Sorting Genetic Algorithm II
  • ALHSO - Augmented Lagrangian Harmony Search Optimizer
  • MIDACO - Mixed Integer Distributed Ant Colony Optimization

Basic usage:

pyOpt is design to solve general constrained nonlinear optimization problems:

\[\begin{split}\left\lbrace \begin{array}{lll} \min & f(x) & \\ \textrm{Subject to} & & \\ & g_j(x) = 0 & j=1,\dots,m_e\\ & g_j(x)\leq0 & j=m_e+1,\dots,m\\ & l_i\leq x_i\leq u_i & i=1,\dots,n, \end{array} \right.\end{split}\]
  • \(x\) is the vector of design variables
  • \(f(x)\) is a nonlinear function
  • \(g(x)\) is a linear or nonlinear function
  • \(n\) is the number of design variables
  • \(m_e\) is the number of equality constraints
  • \(m\) is the total number of constraints (number of equality constraints: \(m_i=m-m_e\)).

The following is a pseudo-code demonstrating the basic usage of pyOpt:

# General Objective Function Template:
def obj_fun(x, *args, **kwargs):
        f: objective value
        g: array (or list) of constraint values
        fail: 0 for successful function evaluation, 1 for unsuccessful function evaluation (test must be provided by user)
        If the Optimization problem is unconstrained, g must be returned as an empty list or array: g = []
        Inequality constraints are handled as `<=`.
        fail = 0
        f = function(x,*args,**kwargs)
        g = function(x,*args,**kwargs)

        return f,g,fail

# Instantiating an Optimization Problem:
opt_prob = Optimization('name', obj_fun)
# Assigning Objective:
opt_prob.addObj('name', value=0.0, optimum=0.0)
# Single Design variable:
opt_prob.addVar('name', type='c', value=0.0, lower=-inf, upper=inf, choices=listochoices)
# A Group of Design Variables:
opt_prob.addVarGroup('name', numerinGroup, type='c', value=value, lower=lb, upper=up, choices=listochoices)
# where `value`, `lb`, `ub` (float or int or list or 1Darray).
# and supported Types are ‘c’: continuous design variable;
# `i`: integer design variable;
# `d`: discrete design variable (based on choices, e.g.: list/dict of materials).
# Assigning Constraints:
## Single Constraint:
opt_prob.addCon('name', type='i', lower=-inf, upper=inf, equal=0.0)
## A Group of Constraints:
opt_prob.addConGroup('name', numberinGroup, type='i', lower=lb, upper=up, equal=eq)
# where `lb`, `ub`, `eq` are (float or int or list or 1Darray).
# and supported types are
# `i` - inequality constraint;
# `e` - equality constraint.

# Instantiating an Optimizer (e.g.: Snopt):
opt = pySNOPT.SNOPT()
# Solving the Optimization Problem:
opt(opt_prob, sens_type='FD', disp_opts=False, sens_mode='', *args, **kwargs)
# Output:
print opt_prob

For more details, see pyOpt documentation.

LaTeX support

There is a method implemented for every class of Irene module that generates a LaTeX code related to the object. This code can be retrieved by calling LaTeX function on the instance.

Calling LaTeX on a

  • SDPRelaxations instance returns the code which demonstrates user entered optimization problem.
  • SDRelaxSol instance returns the code for the moment matrix of the solution.
  • Mom instance (moment object) returns the LaTeX code of the object.
  • sdp instance returns the code for the SDP.

Moreover, if LaTeX function is called on a SymPy object it calls sympy.latex function and returns the output.

The LaTeX function is a member of Irene.base module which calls __latex__ method of its classes.